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Mon, December 12, 2016
At the quantum level, feedback loops have to take into account measurement back-action. The goal of this talk is to explain, in a tutorial way and on the first experimental realization of a quantum-state feedback, how such purely quantum effect can be exploited in models and stabilization control schemes. This closed-loop experiment was conducted in 2011 by the group of Serge Haroche (Physics Nobel Prize 2012). The control goal was to stabilize a small number of micro-wave photons trapped between two super-conducting mirrors and subject to quantum non-demolition measurement via probe off-resonant Rydberg atoms. The implemented control scheme was decomposed into two parts. The first part estimates in real-time the quantum state of the trapped photons via a discrete-time Belavkin quantum filter. The second part is a nonlinear quantum-state feedback based on control Lyapunov functions. It stabilizes via suitable coherent displacements the number of photon(s) towards its set-point, namely an integer less than 5 in the experiment. This control scheme relies on a hidden control Markov model whose structure combines three quantum rules: unitary deterministic Schrödinger evolution; stochastic collapse of the wave packet induced by the measurement; tensor product for the composite systems. These basic quantum rules characterize the structure of all Markovian models describing open-quantum systems. These rules explain also the existence to two kinds of feedback schemes currently developed for quantum error correction: measurement-based feedback where an open quantum system is stabilized by a classical controller; coherent or autonomous feedback (reservoir engineering) where an open quantum system is passively stabilized through its coupling with another highly dissipative quantum system, namely the quantum controller.