ORCID All IEEE journals require an Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for all authors. ORCIDs enable accurate attribution and improved discoverability of an author’s published work. The author will need a registered ORCID in order to submit a manuscript or review a proof in this journal. Follow these steps to link a ScholarOne account to a registered ORCID: Login to ScholarOne and click on your name in the top right corner of the screen. Click E-mail / Name in the dropdown menu. In the ORCID section at the top of the page, click the appropriate link to either register for a new ORCID or associate the account with an existing ORCID. A new page will open to create and/or validate your ORCID. Once the validation is complete, the new page will close and you will return to ScholarOne. Save the changes to your ScholarOne user account. Authors who do not have an ORCID in their ScholarOne user account will be prompted to provide one during submission. In the IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, the IEEE Control Systems Society publishes high-quality papers on technological advances in the design, realization, and operation of control systems. Submissions should emphasize novel contributions to the solution of control engineering problems arising in specific application areas. The IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology is published bimonthly. Three types of contributions are regularly considered: Papers - Presentation of significant research, development, or application of control technology. Brief Papers - Concise descriptions of a contribution to a specific aspect of design, realization, or operation of control systems technology. Letters - Significant remarks of interest to control systems engineers, and comments on previously published papers. In addition, special papers (tutorials, surveys, and perspectives on the current trends in control systems technology) are solicited. Authors are encouraged to contact the Editor-in-Chief before submitting such papers. Papers and Brief Papers go through the same review process. Letters go through a shorter review process to facilitate rapid publication. Manuscripts should be formatted using the IEEE single-spaced double column format using the templates available at http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/author_templates.html Manuscripts submitted as Papers should be no longer than 16 pages formatted according to the above-mentioned double-column IEEE format, including figures. Manuscripts submitted as Brief Papers should be no longer than 8 pages formatted according to the above-mentioned double-column IEEE format, including figures. Manuscripts submitted as Letters should be no longer than 4 pages formatted according to the above-mentioned double-column IEEE format, including figures. Manuscripts exceeding the specified page limits, or clearly outside the scope of the TRANSACTIONS, will be returned without review. A. Process for Submission of Manuscripts Papers may be submitted for publication through the on-line Manuscript Central system at: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/tcst. Only PDF files are accepted. Authors should embed all the fonts needed to print the paper. Authors are expected to obtain any needed clearances for their works and to ensure ITAR compliance, if appropriate (see http://www.ieee.org/organizations/tab/export_compliance.html for details). The on-line system will send an acknowledgment letter to the corresponding author after the paper has been submitted. Authors should contact the editorial office if such a letter has not been received within 1 week after submission of the paper. The procedure for the electronic submission of papers accepted for publication is somewhat different, but may be considered in the preparation of a paper, in order to adopt a format that will be appropriate in case of acceptance. The preferred formats for accepted papers are TeX/LaTeX (.tex), Word (.doc), and ASCII text files (.txt). The preferred formats for graphics are Postscript (.ps), Encapsulated Postscript (.eps), and Tagged Image File Format (.tif). B. Copyright To comply with IEEE copyright policy, authors are required to provide a signed IEEE copyright transfer form after acceptance of their paper. The form is published periodically in the journal and an electronic form is available in the on-line system and at http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/copyright.... C. Previously Published Work IEEE policy requires that when using their own previously published or submitted material as a basis for a new submission authors are expected to "cite the previous work(s) and very clearly indicate how the new submission differs from the previously published work(s)." [IEEE Publications Operations Manual, Section 8.2.4F] If a submitted manuscript has been published or has been accepted for publication in the Proceeding of an IEEE conference, it may be considered for publication in the Transactions on Control Systems Technology if evidence is provided that it adds value relative to its conference version (for example, it contains detailed proofs omitted from the conference version, or additional numerical results). This ensures consistency with the policy stated in the previous two paragraphs. If, at the time of submission, a manuscript has also been submitted for publication in the Proceedings of an IEEE conference, it will be considered for publication in the Transactions of Control Systems Technology with the understanding that, should it be found publishable in both venues, evidence will be provided that its final version adds value relative to its conference version, as explained in the previous paragraph. D. Style for Manuscript In general, manuscripts should follow the standards of the IEEE as described in the Information for IEEE Transactions and Journal Authors, available on request from the IEEE Transactions Department, 445 Hoes Lane, P. O. box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331 USA, or mail to firstname.lastname@example.org or FAX to +1 732 562 0545. Submitted manuscripts must be typewritten in English. Specific guidelines are as follows. The contribution of the paper should be presented in a manner that makes it accessible to the interested control engineering professional. Descriptive prose giving intuitive insight and interpretations is preferred to a formal mathematical development (lemmas, theorems, and proofs). Authors are encouraged to put detailed mathematical derivations in appendixes. The first page should include the title; names, affiliations, and complete mailing addresses of all authors; an indication of the corresponding author. Abstract must be between 150–250 words. Be sure that you adhere to these limits, otherwise you will need to edit your abstract accordingly. The abstract must be written as one paragraph, and should not contain: reference citations, displayed mathematical equations, or tabular material. The introduction should describe the particular control engineering problem considered as it arises in applications. If appropriate, indicate advantages, limitations, and possible applications in a Conclusion section. References should be numbered and appear in a separate bibliography at the end of the paper. Use numerals in square brackets to cite references, e.g., . References should be complete and in IEEE style. E. Graphical Abstract Description and Specifications To enhance the appearance of your article on IEEEXplore®, a graphical abstract can be displayed along with traditional text. The graphical abstract should provide a clear, visual summary of your article’s findings by means of an image, animation, video, or audio clip. NOTE: The graphical abstract is considered a part of the technical content of the article, and you must provide it for peer review during the article submission process. For more information about graphical abstracts and their specifications, please visit the following link: http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/graphical_abstract.pdf F. Style for Illustrations Figures and photos should be original proofs and not Xeroxes. Photos must be glossy prints with no screens. Laser prints are not acceptable in place of photos or where gray scale graphics are involved. All line drawings and photos should be in black and white, unless specifically requested, Letters should be large enough to be readily legible when the drawing is reduced to two-column width - as much as 4:1 reduction from the original. All material should be no larger than 22x28 cm (8 1/2 x 11 in). G. Open Access This publication is a hybrid journal, allowing either Traditional manuscript submission or Open Access (author-pays OA) manuscript submission. Upon submission, if you choose to have your manuscript be an Open Access article, you commit to pay the discounted $1,750 OA fee if your manuscript is accepted for publication in order to enable unrestricted public access. Any other application charges (such as over-length page charge and/or charge for the use of color in the print format) will be billed separately once the manuscript formatting is complete but prior to the publication. If you would like your manuscript to be a Traditional submission, your article will be available to qualified subscribers and purchasers via IEEE Xplore. No OA payment is required for Traditional submission. H. Mandatory Overlength Page Charges A mandatory charge is imposed on all manuscripts (paper and brief) that exceed the requisite TRANSACTIONS pages in length, including illustrations. For papers the length is 12 TRANSACTION pages and for briefs it is 6 TRANSACTION pages. The charge is $125 per page for each page over the limit and is a prerequisite for publication. Details are provided at the time of acceptance; authors are, however, urged to keep in mind the length requirement when submitting and revising their papers (depending on the content of the paper in terms of equations, tables, and figures, the original manuscripts submitted for review may result in a longer published paper after re-formatting by the IEEE Production office). I. Page Charges After a manuscript has been accepted for publication, the author's company or institution will be approached with a request to pay a charge of $110 per page to cover part of the cost of publication. Payments of page charges for this IEEE TRANSACTIONS, like journal of other professional societies, is not necessary prerequisite for publication. The author will receive 100 free reprints (without covers) only if the page charge is honored. Detailed instructions will accompany the proofs. J. Changes in Proof Stage It is standard IEEE policy that changes to the manuscript in the proof stage is limited. It is the author's responsibility to submit the most accurate version upon acceptance. Authors will be charged a fee for excessive edits due to their own errors. K. Additional Information Authors should consult the IEEE web site (www.ieee.org) for up-to-date information about publishing with IEEE. The Guide for Transactions Authors is currently available at: http://www.ieee.org/organizations/pubs/transactions/information.htm The page has a link to the manual: Information for Authors. When submitting a paper, it is useful to note the "Author Responsibilities" copied below: Manuscripts submitted for publication to IEEE Transactions, Journals, Letters, or to the Proceedings of the IEEE should be original work submitted to a single IEEE Journal. It should not have been previously published and should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. The IEEE assumes that material submitted to its publications is properly available for general dissemination for the readership of those publications. It is the responsibility of the authors, not the IEEE, to determine whether disclosure of their material requires the prior consent of other parties and, if so, to obtain it. If an author uses charts, photographs, or other graphics from previously printed material, he/she is responsible for obtaining written permission from the publisher to use the material in his/her manuscript. Statements and opinions given in work published by the IEEE are the expressions of the authors. Responsibility for the contents of published papers rests upon the authors, not the IEEE. The Guide for Transactions Authors web page also contains useful information for papers accepted for publication (e.g., graphic formats), and should be considered when a revision of the paper is prepared. The IEEE Policies and Procedures manual also contains various information of interest to authors and is available at: http://www.ieee.org/about/whatis/policies/ (see especially section 6). For example, answers to questions regarding electronic posting, copyright notice, and electronic preprints may be found. Please consult the web site for further information. Peer Review The articles in this journal are peer reviewed in accordance with the requirements set forth in the IEEE Publication Services and Products Board Operations Manual (https://pspb.ieee.org/images/files/files/opsmanual.pdf). Each published article was reviewed by a minimum of two independent reviewers using a single-blind peer review process, where the identities of the reviewers are not known to the authors, but the reviewers know the identities of the authors. Articles will be screened for plagiarism before acceptance.